Dig Deeper Blog,  Exhibits

Dig Deeper: What Tools Do Archaeologists Use?

Dig Deeper is a monthly blog focusing on the basics of archaeology by taking a closer look at the exhibition Archaeology 101, which is currently featured at the Center.

Introduction

After digging deeper into what archaeology is last month, you now know that archaeology is the study of human history, prehistory, and past cultures through the excavation of sites and the analysis of material remains. An artifact is an object that was made or used by a human, while ecofacts are objects that indicate human activity, like an animal bone that has signs that it was used for food. So archaeology is the study of artifacts or material remains that were left behind by previous generations. Artifacts and ecofacts become buried over time, and archaeologists must recover them carefully so that they can be identified and studied.

What Tools Do Archaeologists Use to Recover Artifacts?

Archaeologists use smaller tools such as brushes to carefully remove dirt from artifacts.

Generally during an excavation, an archaeologist’s tool box consists of some basic tools regardless of the type of excavation. Shovels, trowels, spades, brushes, sieves, and buckets are some of the more obvious or common tools that an archaeologist may carry with them to most digs. Keep in mind that the tool types used may vary depending on the type of excavation. More delicate excavations can require precision tools, such as blades, dental tools (like those picks they use to dig in between your teeth!), and small brushes that will give the archaeologist more control. Excavations that are large may require larger tools like a bulldozer to remove soil that is obstructing the dig site. The type of soil does also plays a factor in which type of tools will be used for a dig as do the size and location of the site. When surface artifacts are found, flags may be used to mark the spot that they are discovered. Cameras and photo scales are used to help document the findings.

A tool that is universal and probably the most used by archaeologists is a simple pointing trowel. This type of trowel is flat, and used to scrape dirt away from artifacts in a very controlled manner, unlike a gardening trowel which has a scooping shape and could end up digging unwanted holes during the process of soil removal. During the removal of each layer of dirt, notes are taken in a field notebook or journal and photographs are also taken to document each step of the process. Soil that is removed during this process is collected in buckets or a wheelbarrow, and taken to be screened for smaller artifacts that may be hiding within the dirt.

What Tools Do Marine Archaeologists Use?

Marine archaeologists use similar tools to land archaeologists, such as hand trowels, square units, clipboards, pencils, and tape measurers, but they also use tools that are much different. For example, hoses are used to collect samples from underwater sites for sifting. As technology advances, so do the tools used to uncover mysteries of past generations. Marine archaeologists may use an exosuit for underwater digs. This is a mechanical suit allowing archaeologists to dive deeper and stay down longer, allowing them to uncover artifacts that have previously been untouchable.

A Total Station Theodolite is an electronic tool used during a survey that measures distance, slope, angles, and the elevation of a feature at an archaeological site.

What Tools Do Archaeologists Use to Survey Sites?

In addition to tools used for excavating, archaeologists also use a variety of different tools during the survey process while searching for sites. Traditional and electronic compasses, tape measuring units, and GPS devices are some tools that may be used. A more advanced tool that many archaeologists use is called a Total Station Theodolite. This is an electronic tool used during a survey that measures distance, slope, angles, and the elevation of a feature at an archaeological site. GIS (geographic information systems) has been a tool used by archaeologists for the past few decades that assists with recording and collecting data, mapping sites, and even with the prediction of archaeological sites.

Conclusion

Archaeologists use many different tools when surveying and excavating sites. It all depends on which ones are needed on a specific dig and the tools are only getting more advanced as technology expands. Come back next month to dig even deeper and explore how archaeologists know where to dig in the first place!

By Jessica McPheters, Collections Manager

Learn More

To read more about the exosuit in action, read Submarine Exosuit Makes Its First Manned Ocean Dive published by Scientific American.

Archaeology 101 Exhibit
Dr. Arty Fax’s Archy Facts

Collections Research

With the assistance of Center staff, the intern will identify, design, and conduct an original research project that uses the Center’s archaeological collections. The intern will formulate a plan for public dissemination of the project results as a journal publication, a museum exhibit, or a public class or lecture. During the course of the research and dissemination planning, the intern will receive training in research design, collections management, artifact analysis, and exhibit design and production as appropriate to the selected project.

Archaeology Lab Positions

Volunteers will prepare one or more archaeological collections for curation. Center staff will instruct the volunteer on archaeological laboratory procedures such as basic artifact analysis, manual and computer cataloging, storage requirements, and preventative conservation.

Volunteers work in the Center’s Research Library, cataloguing materials and organizing on a computer-based system.

Marketing and Administrative Volunteers assist the Development Office or Administration Office with data entry, updating marketing materials and clerical tasks. Computer experience is a plus.

Docents welcome visitors and answer general questions regarding the Center and exhibits. Docents staff the gift shop and help out with administrative and curatorial tasks.

Volunteers support event activities at the Center, such as the Annual BBQ, lectures, workshops, and fundraising events. Be a part of the party!

Volunteer provide support for K-12 programs offered at the Center. These are fun, hands-on programs that kids really enjoy. Teaching experience is a plus, but not required. Background checks are required.

Collections Management

With the assistance of Center staff, the intern will prepare one or more archaeological collections for curation. During the course of the internship, the intern will learn to identify artifacts and ecofacts common to the San Diego region, including lithics, ceramics, historical objects, and faunal, botanical, and mineral specimens. Center staff will instruct the intern on archaeological laboratory procedures such as basic artifact analysis, manual and computer cataloguing, storage requirements, and preventative conservation. In addition, the intern will become familiar with historical trends in archaeological practice in the San Diego area and will be introduced to current legal and ethical issues in archaeological curation as well as the concerns and rights of culturally affiliated groups with regard to archaeological materials.

Development and Marketing

Under the direction of Center staff, the intern will support the department in various activities, including, but not limited to, fundraising and grant research; e-newsletter development; social media marketing; and website maintenance. This internship will give the intern valuable, real-world experience in non-profit fundraising and marketing.

Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology

Prospective Interns must have completed three courses: Introduction to GIS, GIS Database Management, and Intermediate/Advanced Methods in GIS. The intern will be assigned a project where they will create shapefiles and maps for curated archaeological collections, museum exhibits, and/or public outreach using ArcGIS 10.6. Center staff will instruct the intern on archaeological GIS laboratory procedures such as computer cataloguing, storage requirements, and database management.

Library Science

With the assistance of Center staff, the intern will arrange and catalog materials in the Center’s library. During the course of the internship, the intern will take a leading role in the cataloging, sorting and storing of research files and creating user guides for these collections. Center staff will instruct the intern on archival procedures, computer cataloging, storage requirements, and preventative conservation.

Public Archaeology

With the assistance of Center staff, interns will research, design, and produce a project that educates the public about archaeology or a related field using the Center’s archaeological collections. Interns may create virtual museum exhibits and related activities, develop curricula for K-12 programs in line with current content standards, or plan and present a public class or lecture. Per approval, special projects of the intern’s choosing are also available. During the course of the research and planning, the intern will receive guidance as appropriate to the selected project.