From Inside the Vaults Blog

From Inside the Vaults: Preventative Conservation

From Inside the Vaults is a monthly blog that gives insight into best practices for collections stewardship, curation, and archaeological collecting institutions.

What is Preventative Conservation for Museum Collections?

Over the past few months, we have looked at different best practices used by Collections Managers to protect and preserve museum collections. Damage from deterioration of prehistoric and historic collections cannot be completely stopped, only slowed down if proper preventative conservation methods are in place. Preventative conservation is an overarching term that includes practices such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Museum Housekeeping and Gallery Maintenance, as well as ongoing collections inventories. With careful handling, proper storage and artifact monitoring, and controlled environmental conditions, the physical deterioration of artifacts can be mitigated by collections stewards.

Pest Management

Keeping pests out of Museum collections is a necessary piece of preventative conservation. Collections staff follow the Center’s Integrated Pest Management Plan (IPM) to ensure that there are no signs of damaging pests throughout collections spaces. Weekly monitoring of the Center and pest traps helps to keep collections free of pests, preventing the need for remediation of an infestation.

Housekeeping and Gallery Maintenance

Housekeeping and Gallery Maintenance protocols are preventative measures taken to ensure that damage to collections overtime is minimized. Dirt and dust contribute to the deterioration of artifacts and unclean spaces naturally attract pests. Adhering to the Center’s housekeeping plan provides preventative care for artifacts and their storage spaces.

Collections Inventory

When completing collections inventories, Collections Managers are in a unique position to gain accurate, real-time data on artifact conditions. Condition reporting can track deterioration, and also note any conservation treatments that artifacts have had previously or need to undergo in the future. Photographing artifacts, and detailing the artifact’s condition are preventative measures that, if taken, can alert collections stewards before a problem (for example: mold) spreads to other artifacts or, becomes too large to mitigate.

Monitoring Temperature and Humidity Levels

In addition to these best practices, monitoring temperature and humidity levels in collections spaces and places where artifacts are housed is an incredibly important part of preventative conservation. There are standards in place for a “norm” of collections environment temperatures and humidity levels, but because all collections are not created equally, it is good to be flexible based upon the types of collections that are being preserved. For archaeological collections, this flexibility is necessary because there are often many different types of materials collected together. Following the National Park Services Museum Handbook guidelines, the Center organize collections by site and material class. Based on these NPS guidelines, there are three categories the collections lab considers when organizing collections:  Artifacts that are considered negligibly climate-sensitive materials, those that are climate-sensitive materials, and significantly climate-sensitive materials. Much of the Center’s artifacts falls under the first two categories, many of them negligibly climate-sensitive, and are relatively easy to maintain. Artifacts that are significantly climate-sensitive require additional monitoring and care based on their material. Each collections vault in the Center is equipped with individual temperature and humidity controls, and is monitored by Center staff each day. By keeping the relative humidity in these spaces above 30% and below 65%, and temperatures between 50-75 degrees Fahrenheit, collections can remain stable and the rate of deterioration is slowed. If humidity levels rise above 65%, mold and other deterioration dangers may become problematic. Additionally, the higher temperatures rise, the faster deterioration of artifacts will occur. Temperatures and relative humidity of the vaults and Museum galleries are recorded and monitored daily and by capturing this data, the collections department is able to analyze and mitigate any problems caused by fluctuations or increases.

Conclusion

Constant monitoring of collections conditions is necessary for preventative conservation to be a success. Data analysis provides collections department staff with the ability to predict and resolve conservation problems before they arise. By following these best practices, collections will undergo less stress overall and deterioration can be slowed so that artifacts are available for generations to come.

By Jessica McPheters, Collections Manager

Collections Research

With the assistance of Center staff, the intern will identify, design, and conduct an original research project that uses the Center’s archaeological collections. The intern will formulate a plan for public dissemination of the project results as a journal publication, a museum exhibit, or a public class or lecture. During the course of the research and dissemination planning, the intern will receive training in research design, collections management, artifact analysis, and exhibit design and production as appropriate to the selected project.

Archaeology Lab Positions

Volunteers will prepare one or more archaeological collections for curation. Center staff will instruct the volunteer on archaeological laboratory procedures such as basic artifact analysis, manual and computer cataloging, storage requirements, and preventative conservation.

Volunteers work in the Center’s Research Library, cataloguing materials and organizing on a computer-based system.

Marketing and Administrative Volunteers assist the Development Office or Administration Office with data entry, updating marketing materials and clerical tasks. Computer experience is a plus.

Docents welcome visitors and answer general questions regarding the Center and exhibits. Docents staff the gift shop and help out with administrative and curatorial tasks.

Volunteers support event activities at the Center, such as the Annual BBQ, lectures, workshops, and fundraising events. Be a part of the party!

Volunteer provide support for K-12 programs offered at the Center. These are fun, hands-on programs that kids really enjoy. Teaching experience is a plus, but not required. Background checks are required.

Collections Management

With the assistance of Center staff, the intern will prepare one or more archaeological collections for curation. During the course of the internship, the intern will learn to identify artifacts and ecofacts common to the San Diego region, including lithics, ceramics, historical objects, and faunal, botanical, and mineral specimens. Center staff will instruct the intern on archaeological laboratory procedures such as basic artifact analysis, manual and computer cataloguing, storage requirements, and preventative conservation. In addition, the intern will become familiar with historical trends in archaeological practice in the San Diego area and will be introduced to current legal and ethical issues in archaeological curation as well as the concerns and rights of culturally affiliated groups with regard to archaeological materials.

Development and Marketing

Under the direction of Center staff, the intern will support the department in various activities, including, but not limited to, fundraising and grant research; e-newsletter development; social media marketing; tour web app content creation, integration, and management; and website maintenance. This internship will give the intern valuable, real-world experience in non-profit fundraising and marketing.

Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology

Prospective Interns must have completed three courses: Introduction to GIS, GIS Database Management, and Intermediate/Advanced Methods in GIS. The intern will be assigned a project where they will create shapefiles and maps for curated archaeological collections, museum exhibits, and/or public outreach using ArcGIS 10.6. Center staff will instruct the intern on archaeological GIS laboratory procedures such as computer cataloguing, storage requirements, and database management.

Library Science

With the assistance of Center staff, the intern will arrange and catalog materials in the Center’s library. During the course of the internship, the intern will take a leading role in the cataloging, sorting and storing of research files and creating user guides for these collections. Center staff will instruct the intern on archival procedures, computer cataloging, storage requirements, and preventative conservation.

Public Archaeology

With the assistance of Center staff, interns will research, design, and produce a project that educates the public about archaeology or a related field using the Center’s archaeological collections. Interns may create virtual museum exhibits and related activities, develop curricula for K-12 programs in line with current content standards, or plan and present a public class or lecture. Per approval, special projects of the intern’s choosing are also available. During the course of the research and planning, the intern will receive guidance as appropriate to the selected project.